Entropic COVID-19 Guidance

Our guide to prevent Covid-19 in your environment

To protect others wear a basic surgical mask or cloth mask, every time your speak you spray droplets

Speaking, coughing and sneezing emits virus laden particles into the air. A sneeze or cough can fill the room with the virus. Wearing masks will reduce the amount of virus in the air and reduce infection spread.

How to make a basic cloth mask?
Click here to learn how to make a basic cloth mask

Basic masks offer almost no protection to the wearer, but they significantly reduce the pathogen load in the air and reduce infection.
(Use of  Cloth Face Coverings to Help Slow the Spread of  COVID-19).

Gross protection of surgical masks compared to filtering facepiece respirators
Evaluating the protection afforded by surgical masks against influenza bioaerosol

Masks differences: Surgical Mask x Respirator Mask
Understanding masks differences

Masks differences: Surgical Mask x Respirator Mask x Comfort Masks
Difference between mask and respirator?

COVID-19 compared to other common conditions

covid19

General Building

Defense measures

  • Masks
  • Separation
  • Ventilation

Action item

  • Everyone wear a mask when outside your home
  • To protect yourself wear at least FFP2 or N95 respirator masks
  • Hospital staff should wear at least a FFP2 or N95 respirator masks

Comments

Masks type

  1. European FFP2 respirator masks are equal to American N95 respirator masks
  2. FFP 2 respirator masks are better then FFP 1
  3. Healthcare workers should wear FFP3 masks

Virus can be carried long distance

  • Viruses hitchhike on particles, droplets and aerosols. 2m is not enough separation between people to stop transmission of the virus
  • Virus laden particles can be carried long distances. Air doesn’t move the way you think it does.
  • The virus is very small. It is 10 times smaller than the smallest pollen and 1000 times smaller than the largest pollen.
  • 1 nano meter is 1 millionth of a millimeter.
  • SARS-CoV-2 is approx 100 nano-meters (The size of a virus to 1m is equivalent as a coconut to the earth)

Hospitals

Defense measures

  • Ventilation

Action item

  • If operating theatres are used as intensive care rooms for patients, change the room pressure from positive to negative
  • Make sure isolation rooms are negative pressure

Hospitals, Nursing homes, Multi-residential buildings

Defense measures

  • Ventilation
  • Separation

Action item

  • Designate certain hospitals as COVID-19 hospitals and non-COVID-19 hospitals
  • Wards with COVID-19 patients should be negative pressure to surrounding rooms
  • Use high volumes of HEPA filtered air to reduce the pathogen load in rooms

Comments

  • Existing patients will contract COVID-19 from infected patients. Keep them in separate hospitals.
  • Extract fans in en-suite toilets to run at full speed.
  • Greater than 10 air changes per hour is recommended, the more the better.  If HEPA filters are not available, all types of filters and air sanitisers will help but the effectiveness of small units with a small air flow will be of very little benefit.
    H14 HEPA filters remove 99,995% (MPPS 100-200nm) of the particles from the recirculated airflow, which means that the filtration efficiency is 1000 times higher than in respirator masks (USA:N95/Europe:FFP1) recommended by CDC for HCP (health care professionals) caring for patients with confirmed or suspected respiratory pathogens including SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.”

Hospitals, Nursing homes, Multi-residential buildings, Shops, Petrol stations

Defense measures

  • Ventilation
  • Separation

Action item

  • Maximise air change rates in rooms
  • Switch off recirculating air conditioning units unless they are HEPA filtered
  • Increase fan speeds to maximum
  • Close the lid on toilets before flushing
  • Fix toilet extract fans on highest speed

Comments

  • This includes so called ‘split’ refrigeration based air conditioning units and fan coil units. These units are very common in offices, shops, supermarkets and are in most hospitals and nursing homes
  • It is highly likely that SARS-CoV-2 can be transferred via faecal-oral transmission